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A Comparison Of Public Defenders Vs. Private Attorneys, Tiffany Costello 2021 Merrimack College

A Comparison Of Public Defenders Vs. Private Attorneys, Tiffany Costello

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

This study seeks to determine whether there are any differences in conviction rates or client satisfaction between public defenders and private attorneys in state or federal courts. Although researchers have spent time examining differences between attorney type and client satisfaction or conviction rates, little information exists on the assessment of attorney type in the federal system. The study will consist of a two-part survey with approximately twenty-seven closed-ended questions about client satisfaction, conviction, court, and attorney type. The target population will be any criminal defendant in federal or state court with an attorney. In this study, the sampling method will ...


Canadian Food Law Update, Patricia L. Farnese 2021 University of Saskatchewan

Canadian Food Law Update, Patricia L. Farnese

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Provided below is an overview of developments in Canadian food law and policy in 2009. This update primarily analyzes the regulatory and policy developments and litigation activities by the federal government. This focus reflects the significance of federal activities in the food policy realm. In 2009, regulatory and policy developments continue to be dominated by the 2008 Listeriosis outbreak in ready-to-eat, deli meats. Other noted activities include Canada's ongoing efforts to minimize the effects of infectious diseases related to meat production, Canada's request for a WTO panel to consider the effects of American Country of Origin Labelling, and ...


United States Food Law Update: Food Allergy Labels, Reaching Organic Equivalence, Misbranding Litigation And Regulatory Takings, A. Bryan Endres, Michaela N. Tarr 2021 University of Illinois

United States Food Law Update: Food Allergy Labels, Reaching Organic Equivalence, Misbranding Litigation And Regulatory Takings, A. Bryan Endres, Michaela N. Tarr

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The start of 2009 found the nation transitioning to a new presidential administration, speculating on the impact new appointees to the executive branch may have on regulatory priorities and monitoring a bill' making its way through Congress that seeks a substantial overhaul of the food regulatory system. This version of the Food Law Update will analyze two major developments in food allergy labeling: finalization of rules requiring the labeling of Cochineal extract/ carmine and an analysis of the proposed "gluten-free" product labels. The update next discusses the execution of an equivalency agreement between the United States and Canada with respect ...


Laypeople As Learners: Applying Educational Principles To Improve Juror Comprehension Of Instructions, Max Rogers 2021 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Laypeople As Learners: Applying Educational Principles To Improve Juror Comprehension Of Instructions, Max Rogers

Northwestern University Law Review

The U.S. Constitution enshrines the jury in a sacred space within the American judicial system. Yet there are troubling signs that, notwithstanding their best efforts, jurors struggle to fulfill their duties. In particular, substantial empirical research indicates that jurors struggle to understand and, consequently, to apply the instructions given to them by the judge just prior to deliberations. Various mechanisms have been proposed— and in some cases adopted—to improve jurors’ comprehension of instructions and the quality of the deliberations that follow. Among these are rewriting jury instructions in “plain English,” permitting jurors to take notes and ask questions ...


The Hague Judgments Convention In The United States: A “Game Changer” Or A New Path To The Old Game?, Ronald A. Brand 2021 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

The Hague Judgments Convention In The United States: A “Game Changer” Or A New Path To The Old Game?, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

The Hague Judgments Convention, completed on July 2, 2019, is built on a list of “jurisdictional filters” in Article 5(1), and grounds for non-recognition in Article 7. If one of the thirteen jurisdictional tests in Article 5(1) is satisfied, the judgment may circulate under the Convention, subject to the grounds for non-recognition found in Article 7. This approach to Convention structure is especially significant for countries considering ratification and implementation. A different structure was suggested in the initial Working Group stage of the Convention’s preparation which would have avoided the complexity of multiple rules of indirect jurisdiction ...


Big Pharma, Big Problems: Covid-19 Heightens Patent-Antitrust Tension Caused By Reverse Payments, Hannah M. Lasting 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Big Pharma, Big Problems: Covid-19 Heightens Patent-Antitrust Tension Caused By Reverse Payments, Hannah M. Lasting

Seattle University Law Review

In the wake of COVID-19, pharmaceutical companies rushed to produce vaccinations and continue to work on developing treatments, while the tension caused by reverse payments intensifies between patent and antitrust law. Lawmakers must address this tension, and the current pandemic should serve as a catalyst to prompt reform at the legislative level. By amending the Hatch-Waxman Act, lawmakers can ease the increasing strain between patent and antitrust policy concerns. In 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court attempted to resolve this tension in its landmark decision, F.T.C. v. Actavis, but the tension remains as lower courts struggle to produce ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Virtual Trials: Necessity, Invention, And The Evolution Of The Courtroom, Susan A. Bandes, Neal Feigenson 2020 DePaul University College of Law

Virtual Trials: Necessity, Invention, And The Evolution Of The Courtroom, Susan A. Bandes, Neal Feigenson

Buffalo Law Review

Faith in the legitimating power of the live hearing or trial performed at the place of justice is at least as old as the Iliad. In public courtrooms, litigants appear together, evidence is presented, and decisions are openly and formally pronounced. The bedrock belief in the importance of the courtroom is rooted in common law, constitutional guarantees, and venerated tradition, as well as in folk knowledge. Courtrooms are widely believed to imbue adjudication with “a mystique of authenticity and legitimacy.” The COVID-19 pandemic, however, by compelling legal systems throughout the world to turn from physical courtrooms to virtual ones, disrupts ...


United States Food Law Update: Labeling Contoversies, Biotechnology Litigation, And The Safety Of Imporeted Food, A. Bryan Endres 2020 University of Illinois

United States Food Law Update: Labeling Contoversies, Biotechnology Litigation, And The Safety Of Imporeted Food, A. Bryan Endres

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This update summarizes significant changes and developments in food law throughout the first half of 2007. Out of necessity, not every change is included; rather, this update is limited to significant changes in national law. This series of updates provides a starting point for scholars, practitioners, food scientists, and policymakers determined to understand the shaping of food law in modern society. Tracing the development of food law through these updates also builds an important historical context for the overall development of the discipline.


The Battle Of The Bulge: Evaluating Law As A Weapon Against Obesity, Margaret Sova McCabe 2020 Pierce Law Center

The Battle Of The Bulge: Evaluating Law As A Weapon Against Obesity, Margaret Sova Mccabe

Journal of Food Law & Policy

"Silly rabbit, Trix are for kids." Since the 1970s, kids have gotten to know the silly rabbit created to promote sugary, fruit-flavored cereal in television ads. Today, "i'm lovin' it" is the McDonald's slogan, but to millions of children the more recognizable symbol is Ronald McDonald. Ronald McDonald is so recognizable that one study pegged recognition of Ronald among American children at 96% and another at 80% by children in nine other countries. Giventhe "obesity crisis," many question whether these ads should be permitted, with some questioning whether such products are even safe for children's consumption. The ...


Substantive Remedies, Hanoch Dagan, Avihay Dorfman 2020 Stewart and Judy Colton Professor of Legal Theory and Innovation and Director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, Tel-Aviv University

Substantive Remedies, Hanoch Dagan, Avihay Dorfman

Notre Dame Law Review

Often, private law remedies enforce or vindicate infringed underlying rights. Substantive remedies are different. Substantive remedies do not aim at restoring these rights; nor do they seek to change them. Instead, substantive remedies adjust the remedial response for a right violation so as to ensure post-wrong justice. They require the law of remedies not merely to look back, but rather to take a second look at the parties’ post-wrong situation. At times, such a second look affects the type of remedy awarded (damages in lieu of injunctive relief); in other cases—for instance, the tort doctrine of crushing liability—it ...


A Formulaic Recitation Will Not Do: Why The Federal Rules Demand More Detail In Criminal Pleading, Charles Eric Hintz 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

A Formulaic Recitation Will Not Do: Why The Federal Rules Demand More Detail In Criminal Pleading, Charles Eric Hintz

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

When a plaintiff files a civil lawsuit in federal court, her complaint must satisfy certain minimum standards. Specifically, under the prevailing understanding of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 8(a), a complaint must plead sufficient factual matter to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face, rather than mere conclusory statements. Given the significantly higher stakes involved in criminal cases, one might think that an even more robust requirement would exist in that context. But in fact a weaker pleading standard reigns. Under the governing interpretation of Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 7(c), indictments that simply ...


A Babe In The Woods: An Essay On Kirby Lumber And The Evolution Of Corporate Law, Lawrence Hamermesh 2020 University of Pennsylvania

A Babe In The Woods: An Essay On Kirby Lumber And The Evolution Of Corporate Law, Lawrence Hamermesh

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay examines the development of corporate law during the time span of the author's career, focusing on the interrelated subjects of valuation, corporate purpose, and shareholder litigation.


The Hamburglar, Friend Or Foe: What Is The Best Solution For Lawsuits Alleging Obesity Caused By Fast Food Outlets When No Causal Link Between Consumption And Obesity Can Be Found?, Mary Hoshall Hodges 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Hamburglar, Friend Or Foe: What Is The Best Solution For Lawsuits Alleging Obesity Caused By Fast Food Outlets When No Causal Link Between Consumption And Obesity Can Be Found?, Mary Hoshall Hodges

Journal of Food Law & Policy

When is the last time you ventured through the drive-thru of a fast food establishment? Maybe last night when it was just easier than taking the time to cook dinner, or maybe last weekend on your way home from vacation, or maybe when you were running low on funds and needed a cheap meal? Given the busy, fast-paced lives Americans lead, it is no wonder that many rely on the fast food industry, even though most would not care to admit it.


Preventatitve V. Punitive: How Genetically Modified Rice Litigation Shaped Regulation And Remedy For Genetically Engineered Crops, Allison Waldrip Bragg 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Preventatitve V. Punitive: How Genetically Modified Rice Litigation Shaped Regulation And Remedy For Genetically Engineered Crops, Allison Waldrip Bragg

Journal of Food Law & Policy

As agricultural technology develops, new issues emerge. While genetically engineered crops can increase yields and productivity, they can also increase new legal concerns that had not previously existed. One such concern is the comingling of non-engineered crops with genetically engineered varieties. The corruption of plants that are not engineered is a problem not only because of the loss of that original plant itself if the entire plant population were to become comingled, but also because of the inability to sell a crop that has been intended as a non-engineered crop when it is infiltrated by genetically engineered material.


Class Action Squared: Multistate Actions And Agency Dilemmas, Elysa M. Dishman 2020 Associate Professor, BYU Law School

Class Action Squared: Multistate Actions And Agency Dilemmas, Elysa M. Dishman

Notre Dame Law Review

As the Supreme Court continues to restrict the reach of private class actions, numerous commentators have championed public enforcement actions by state attorneys general (AGs) as a superior alternative to hold corporations accountable for misconduct. While AG actions fill some of the void left by the forced retreat of the private class action, few scholars have seriously considered whether the agency problems that exist in private class actions also occur in AG actions. And, until now, no scholar has recognized the unique agency problems that arise when AGs act together in multistate actions.

Multistate actions are made up of two ...


The Remand Power And The Supreme Court's Role, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl 2020 Associate Dean for Research and Faculty Development and Rita Anne Rollins Professor of Law, William & Mary Law School

The Remand Power And The Supreme Court's Role, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl

Notre Dame Law Review

“Reversed and remanded.” Or “vacated and remanded.” These familiar words, often found at the end of an appellate decision, emphasize that an appellate court’s conclusion that the lower court erred generally does not end the litigation. The power to remand for further proceedings rather than wrap up a case is useful for appellate courts because they may lack the institutional competence to bring the case to a final resolution (as when new factual findings are necessary) or lack an interest in the fact-specific work of applying a newly announced legal standard to the particular circumstances at hand. The modern ...


Federal Rule 44.1: Foreign Law In U.S. Courts Today, Vivian Grosswald Curran 2020 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Federal Rule 44.1: Foreign Law In U.S. Courts Today, Vivian Grosswald Curran

Articles

This article presents an in-depth analysis of the latent methodological issues that are as much a cause of U.S. federal court avoidance of foreign law as are judicial difficulties in obtaining foreign legal materials and difficulties in understanding foreign legal orders and languages. It explores Rule 44.1’s inadvertent introduction of a civil-law method into a common-law framework, and the results that have ensued, including an incomplete transition of foreign law from being an issue of fact to becoming an issue of law. It addresses the ways in which courts obtain information about foreign law today, suggesting among ...


The Exhibit, The Litigation Center Newsletter - Winter 2020, Golden Gate University School of Law 2020 Golden Gate University School of Law

The Exhibit, The Litigation Center Newsletter - Winter 2020, Golden Gate University School Of Law

Litigation Center at Golden Gate University School of Law

No abstract provided.


Arbitration Waiver And Prejudice, Timothy Leake 2020 University of Michigan Law School

Arbitration Waiver And Prejudice, Timothy Leake

Michigan Law Review

Arbitration agreements are common in commercial and consumer contracts. But two parties can litigate an arbitrable dispute in court if neither party seeks arbitration. That presents a problem if one party changes its mind and invokes its arbitration rights months or years after the lawsuit was filed and substantial litigation activity has taken place. Federal and state courts agree that a party can waive its arbitration rights by engaging in sufficient litigation activity without seeking arbitration, but they take different approaches to deciding how much litigation is too much. Two basic methods exist. Some courts say waiver requires the party ...


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